Malnutrition is a common problem that is experienced by many people in the developing countries all over the world. It’s not such a big problem in the developed countries around the world. Sometimes this malnutrition and the associated conditions can be the result of lack of proper nutrition, but on other occasions where people are receiving adequate food, it might be the case of disease such as malabsorption syndromes. Which can result with similar presentation. Because the patient’s body is not able to absorb the food that is being consumed. Malnutrition is frequently unrecognized and consequently patients often do not receive appropriate support. There is a considerable body of indication to show that patients who undergo malnourishment or have signs of undernourishment have a higher danger of complications and an increased danger of death in contrast with patients who have satisfactory nutritional reserves.
Long-standing protein–calorie malnutrition is easy to recognize. Short-term undernutrition, although less easily recognized, frequently occurs in association with critical illness, major trauma, burns or surgery, and also impacts on patient recovery. The aim of nutritional support with health supplements is to identify those patients at risk of malnutrition and to ensure that their nutritional requirements are met by the most appropriate route and in a way that minimizes complications.
With increasing duration of fasting (>24 hours), glycogen stores are depleted and de novo glucose production from non-carbohydrate precursors (gluconeogenesis) takes place, predominantly in the liver. Most of this glucose is derived from the breakdown of amino acids, particularly glutamine, glucosamine in Singapore and alanine as a result of catabolism of skeletal muscle (up to 75 g per day). This protein catabolism in simple starvation is readily reversed with the provision of exogenous glucose. With more prolonged fasting there is an increased reliance on fat oxidation to meet energy requirements. Increased breakdown of fat stores occurs, providing glycerol, which can be converted to glucose, and fatty acids, which can be used as a tissue fuel by almost all of the body’s tissues.
Therefore it is important that we recognize these conditions in their early stages, even if the patient presents to you with a different problem and complain. Because early recognition increases the chances of better treatment options and faster improvement of the condition. Therefore these patients must be properly investigated and the necessary changes made to their lifestyle. Because sometimes this may be the only change they require. While in other circumstances they might require drug therapy in order to improve their condition. Whatever the course of treatment, we must make sure we catch the problem early on.